Archives of Acoustics, 41, 2, pp. 203–212, 2016

Analysing Sound Environment and Architectural Characteristics of Libraries through Indoor Soundscape Framework

Cankaya University, Ankara

University of Sheffield, Sheffield
United Kingdom

This study presents the indoor soundscape framework in detail by describing the variables and factors that form an indoor soundscape study. The main objective is to introduce a new indoor soundscaping framework and systematically explain the variables that contribute to the overall evaluation of an indoor soundscape. Hence, the dependencies of physical and psychoacoustical factors of the sound environment and the spatial factors of the built entity are statistically tested. The new indoor soundscaping framework leads to an overarching evaluation perspective of enclosed sound environments, combining objective room acoustics research and noise control engineering with architectural analysis. Therefore, it is hypothesised that case spaces with certain plan organisations, volumetric relations, and spatial referencing lead to differentiated sound pressure level (SPL) and loudness (N) values. SPL and N parametric variances of the sound environments are discussed through the statistical findings with respect to the architectural characteristics of each library case space. The results show that the relation between crowd level variances and sound environment parametric values is statistically significant. It is also found that increasing the atrium height and atrium void volume, the atrium’s presence as a common architectural element, and its interpenetrating reference and domain containment results in unwanted variances and acoustic formations, leading to high SPL and N values.
Keywords: soundscape framework; indoor space soundscaping; indoor sound environment; spatial analysis; archi-acoustical characteristics; library; architectural analysis.
Full Text: PDF


Arnheim R. (1977), The Dynamics of Architectural Form, UC Press, Berkeley.

Bernat S. (2013), Awareness of noise hazards and the value of soundscapes in Polish National Parks, Archives of Acoustics, 38, 4, 479–487.

Barkana B.D., Uzkent B. (2011), Environmental noise classifier using a new set of feature parameters based on pitch range, Applied Acoustics, 72, 841–848.

Botteldooren D., De Coensel B., De Muer T. (2006), The temporal structure of urban soundscapes, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 292, 105–123.

Bradley J.S. (2011), Review of objective room acoustics measures and future needs, Applied Acoustics, 72, 713–720.

Brown A.L., Kang J., Gjestland T. (2011), Towards standardization in soundscape preference assessment, Applied Acoustics, 72, 387–392.

Bruce N.S., Davies W., Adams M.D. (2009), Expectation as afactor in the perception of soundscapes, Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 95.

Ching F.D.K. (1996), Architecture: Form, Space and Order, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Dokmeci P.N. (2013), New framework on indoor soundscaping through built entity, sound environment, and contextual experience, PhD diss., University of Sheffield.

Dokmeci P.N., Kang J. (2010), Objective parameters for acoustic comfort in enclosed spaces, Paper presented at the 20th International Congress on Acoustics, August 23–27, Sydney.

Dovey K. (1999), Framing Places: Mediating Power in Built Form, Routledge, London.

European Committee for Standardization (2007), Indoor environment input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics, European Standard EN 15251:2007(E).

Genuit K., Fiebig A. (2006), Psychoacoustics and its Benefit for the Soundscape Approach, Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 92, 952–958.

Handel S. (1989), Listening: An Introduction to the Perception of Auditory Events, MIT Press, London.

Hatfield J., van Kamp I., Job R.F.S. (2006), Clarifying ‘Soundscape’: Effects of Question Format on Reaction to Noise from Combined Sources, Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 92, 922–928.

Hillier B., Hanson J. (1984), The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

International Organization for Standardization (2006), Building environment design-Indoor environment – General principles, International Standard, ISO 16813, 2006 (E).

Lawson B. (2001), The Language of Space, Architectural Press, Oxford.

Liu J., Kang J., Behm H., Luo T. (2014), Effects of landscape on soundscape perception: soundwalks in city parks, Landscape and Urban Planning, 123, 30–40.

Meiss P.V. (1990), Elements of Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Moore B.C.J. (1997), An Introduction to the Psychology of Hearing, Academic Press, London.

Norberg-Schulz C. (1971), Existence, Space & Architecture, Praeger Publishers, New York.

Pearson M.P., Richards C. (1994), Architecture and Order: Approaches to Social Space, Routledge, London.

Rychtáriková M., Vermeir G. (2011), Soundscape categorization on the basis of objective acoustical parameters, Applied Acoustics, 74, 2, 240–47.

Schafer M.R. (1994), The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World, Destiny Books, Vermont.

Thomas P., van Renterghem T., Botteldooren D. (2011), Using room acoustical parameters for evaluating the quality of urban squares for open-air rock concerts, Applied Acoustics, 72, 210–220.

Traux B. (2001), Acoustic Communication, 2nd ed., CT: Ablex, Westport.

Traux B., Barrett G.W. (2011), Soundscape in a context of acoustic and landscape ecology, Landscape Ecology, 26, 1201–1207.

Tuan Y. (1977), Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience, Edward Arnold Publishers, London.

Unwin S. (2003), Analyzing Architecture, Routledge, London.

van der Laan H. (1983), Architectonic Space, E.J. Brill, Leiden.

World Soundscape Project (1978), The World Soundscape Project’s Handbook for acoustic ecology, The Music of the environment series, Simon Fraser University, and ARC Publications.

Yang M., Kang J. (2011), Soundscape analysis using musical features with music information retrieval techniques, Paper presented at Forum Acusticum Conference, Aalborg, June 26 – July 1.

Zwicker E., Fastl H. (1999), Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models, Springer, New York.

DOI: 10.1515/aoa-2016-0020

Copyright © Polish Academy of Sciences & Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT PAN)