Archives of Acoustics, 42, 1, pp. 83–91, 2017

The Effect of Angle of Attack and Flow Conditions on Turbulent Boundary Layer Noise of Small Wind Turbines

Don State Technical University
Russian Federation

The article aims to solve the problem of noise optimization of small wind turbines. The detailed analysis concentrates on accurate specification and prediction of the turbulent boundary layer noise spectrum of the blade airfoil. The angles of attack prediction for a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and the estimation based on literature data for a vertical axis one (VAWT), were conducted, and the influence on the noise spectrum was considered. The 1/3-octave sound pressure levels are obtained by semi-empirical model BPM. Resulting contour plots show a fundamental difference in the spectrum of HAWT and VAWT reflecting the two aerodynamic modes of flow that predefine the airfoil self-noise. Comparing the blade elements with a local radius of 0.875 m in the HAWT and VAWT conditions the predicted sound pressure levels are the 78.5 dB and 89.8 dB respectively. In case of the HAWT with predicted local angle of attack ranging from 2.98◦ to 4.63◦, the acoustic spectrum will vary primarily within broadband frequency band 1.74–20 kHz. For the VAWT with the local angle of attack ranging from 4◦ to 20◦ the acoustic spectrum varies within low and broadband frequency bands 2 Hz – 20 kHz.
Keywords: wind turbine; airfoil self-noise; turbulent boundary layer; flow conditions; angle of attack
Full Text: PDF


Afanasyeva N.A., Dudnik V.V., Gaponov V.L. (2016), The small horizontal axis wind turbine simulation in yaw conditions, Energy supply and energy efficiency in agriculture. Proceedings of the 10th International Scientific and Technical Conference (21–22 May, 2016, Moscow, VIESH), Moscow, VIESH, 5, 20, 371–376.

Blake W.K. [Ed.] (1986), Mechanics of flow-induced sound and vibration, Frenkiel & Temple, Inc., Florida.

Brooks T.F., Hodgson T.H. (1981), Trailing Edge Noise Prediction From Measured Surface Pressures, Journal of:Sound and Vibration, 7, 1, 69–117.

Brooks F.Т., Pope D.S., Marcolini M.A. (1989), Airfoil Self-Noise and Prediction, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, NASA RP-1218, 1−137.

Bullmore A.J., Lowson J.F., Bass J.H., Dunbabin P. (1999), Wind turbine measurements for Noise source identification, Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell, ETSU W/13/00391/00/REP, 1−346.

Ffowcs-Williams J.E., Hall L.H. (1970), Aerodynamic sound generation by turbulent flow in the vicinity of a scattering half plane, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 40, 4, 657–670.

Glegg S.A.L., Baxter S.M., Glendinning A.G. (1987), The Prediction of Broadband Noise from Wind Turbines, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 118, 2, 217−239.

Grosveld F.W. (1985), Prediction of Broadband Noise from Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines, Journal of Propulsion and Power, 1, 4, 292−299.

Gurinov A.S., Gaponov V.L. (2011), Dynamic mathematical model of rotor rotation and the yaw system of a small wind turbine for farms by using the automatic orientation system, Vestnik DSTU, T. 11, 10, 61, 1763–1770.

Keiko F., Masashi W., Akiyoshi I., Akisato M. (2004), Separation Control of High Angle of Attack Airfoil for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines, Graduate School of Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kogakuin University, Japan, 59−62.

Liu N.S., Shamroth S.J. (1985), On the Application of a Hairpin Vortex Model of Wall Turbulence to Trailing Edge Noise Prediction, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, NASA CR-177938, 1−56.

Lowson M.V. (1992), Assessment and Prediction of Wind Turbine Noise, Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell, ETSU W/13/00284/REP, 1−59.

Oerlemans S., Sijtsma P., M´endez L´opez B. (2007), Localisation and quantification of noise sources on a wind turbine, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 299, 4–5, 869–883.

Oerlemans S., Schepers J.G. (2009), Prediction of wind turbine noise and validation against experiment, International Journal of Aeroacoustics, 8, 555−584.

Schlinker R.H., Amiet R.K. (1981), Helicopter Rotor Trailing Edge Noise, NACA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, NASA CR-3470, 1−145.

South P., Rangi R.S. (1975), An Experimental Investigation of a 12-ft Diameter High Speed Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine, National Research Council of Canada, Ontario, Ottawa, Canada, TR-LA-166.

Visbal M.R. (1990), Dynamic Stall of a Constant-Rate Pitching Airfoil, AIAA Journal of Aircraft, 27, 5, 400−407.

DOI: 10.1515/aoa-2017-0009

Copyright © Polish Academy of Sciences & Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT PAN)