Archives of Acoustics, 44, 2, pp. 375–383, 2019

Methods to Estimate the Channel Delay Profile and Doppler Spectrum of Shallow Underwater Acoustic Channels

Hanoi University of Science and Technology.
Viet Nam

Hanoi University of Science and Technology.
Viet Nam

Hoa Xuan Thi HO
Hanoi University of Science and Technology.
Viet Nam

In this paper, we present the methods to detect the channel delay profile and the Doppler spectrum of shallow underwater acoustic channels (SUAC). In our channel sounding methods, a short impulse in form of a sinusoid function is successively sent out from the transmitter to estimated the channel impulse response (CIR). A bandpass filter is applied to eliminate the interference from out-of-band (OOB). A threshould is utilized to obtain the maximum time delay of the CIR. Multipath components of the SUAC are specified by correlating the received signals with the transmitted sounding pulse with its shifted phases from 0 to 2Π. We show the measured channel parameters, which have been carried out in some lakes in Hanoi. The measured results illustrate that the channel is frequency selective for a narrow band transmission. The Doppler spectrum can be obtained by taking the Fourier transform of the time correlation of the measured channel transfer function. We have shown that, the theoretical maximum Doppler frequency fits well to that one obtained from measurement results.
Keywords: shallow underwater acoustic; channel parameters detection; channel delay profile; Doppler spectrum
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).


Adzhani S.I., Mahmudah H., Santoso T.B. (2016), Time-frequency analysis of underwater ambient noise of mangrove estuary, [in:] International Electronics Symposium (IES), pp. 223–227.

Akada S., Yoshizawa S., Tanimoto H., Saito T. (2015), Experimental evaluation of data selective rake reception for underwater acoustic communication, [in:] 2015 International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ISPACS), Nusa Dua, pp. 514–519.

Aliesawi S., Tsimenidis C.C., Sharif B.S., Johnston M. (2010), Efficient channel estimation for chip multiuser detection on underwater acoustic channels, [in:] 7th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP 2010), pp. 173–177.

Babar Z., Sun Z., Ma L., Qiao G. (2016), Shallow water acoustic channel modeling and OFDM simulations, [in:] OCEANS 2016 MTS/IEEE Monterey, pp. 1–6.

Bahrami N., Khamis N.H.H., Baharom A.B. (2016), Study of underwater channel estimation based on different node placement in shallow water, IEEE Sensors Journal, 16, 4, 1095–1102.

Binnerts B., Blom K., Giodini S. (2017), Analysis of underwater acoustic propagation in a harbour environment and its effect on communication, [in:] OCEANS 2017 – Aberdeen, pp. 1–6.

Borowski B. (2009), Characterization of a very shallow water acoustic communication channel, [in:] OCEANS 2009, Biloxi, MS, pp. 1–10.

Byun S.H., Seong W., Kim S.M. (2013), Sparse underwater acoustic channel parameter estimation using a wideband receiver array, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 38, 4, 718–729.

Chen Y., Zou L., Zhao A., Yin J. (2016), Null subcarriers based Doppler scale estimation for multicarrier communication over underwater acoustic non-uniform Doppler shift channels, [in:] IEEE/OES China Ocean Acoustics (COA), pp. 1–6.

Cheng E., Chen S., Yuan F. (2015), Design and detection of multilinear chirp signals for underwater acoustic sensor networks, International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 2015, Article ID, 371579, doi: 10.1155/2015/371579.

Das A., Pallayil V. (2016), Validation of channel model for evaluating the performance of probing signal design in shallow tropical waters, [in:] OCEANS 2016 MTS/IEEE Monterey, pp. 1–6.

De Rango F., Veltri F., Fazio P. (2012), A multipath fading channel model for underwater shallow acoustic communications, [in:] IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 3811–3815.

Dunn P.F. (2005), Measurement and data analysis for engineering and science, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Eggen T., Preisig J., Baggeroer A. (2001), Communication over Doppler spread channels. II. Receiver characterization and practical results, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 26, 4, 612–621

Kochanska I., Schmidt J. (2017), Probe signal processing for channel estimation in underwater acoustic communication system, [in:] Signal Processing: Algorithms, Architectures, Arrangements, and Applications (SPA), Poznan, pp. 325–330.

Kulhandjian H., Melodia T. (2014), modeling underwater acoustic channels in short-range shallow water environments, [in:] Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Networks & Systems (WUWNET), pp. 26:1–26:5, ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 26.

Li B., Zhou S., Stojanovic M., Freitag L., Willett P. (2008), Multicarrier communication over underwater acoustic channels with nonuniform Doppler shifts, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 33, 2, 198–209.

Preisig J. (2007), Acoustic propagation considerations for underwater acoustic communications network development, ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 11, 4, pp. 2–10.

Proakis J. (2007), Digital communications (5th ed.), pp. 830–898, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Qarabaqi P. Stojanovic M. (2013), Statistical characterization and computationally efficient modeling of a class of underwater acoustic communication channels, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 38, 4, 701–717.

Rossi P.S., Ciuonzo D., Ekman T., Dong H. (2015), Energy detection for MIMO decision fusion in underwater sensor networks, IEEE Sensors Journal, 15, 3, 1630–1640.

Song X., Willett P., Glaz J., Zhou S. (2012), Active detection with a barrier sensor network using a scan statistic, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 37, 1, 66–74.

Sozer E.M., Stojanovic M., Proakis J.G. (2000), Underwater acoustic networks, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 25, 1, 72–83.

Stojanovic M., Preisig J. (2009), Underwater acoustic communication channels: Propagation models and statistical characterization, IEEE Communications Magazine, 47, 1, 84–89.

Tomasi B., Zappa G., McCoy K., Casari P., Zorzi M. (2010), Experimental study of the space-time properties of acoustic channels for underwater communications, [in:] OCEANS 2010 IEEE – Sydney, pp. 1–9.

VanWalree P.A. (2013), Propagation and scattering effects in underwater acoustic communication channels, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 38, 4, 614–631.

Vriens J., Janssen G. (1991), Radio channel measurements using a broadband pseudo-noise signal (measurement set-up and processing of the results), [in:] Final Report Physics and Electronics Lab. TNO, pp. 101.

Wu L. et al. (2012), Designing an adaptive acoustic modem for underwater sensor networks, IEEE Embedded Systems Letters, 4, 1, 1–4.

DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2019.128501