Archives of Acoustics, 45, 3, pp. 393–400, 2020

Evaluation of New Polish Articulation Lists (NAL-93) in the Presence of Various Speech-Like Maskers

Adam Mickiewicz University

Adam Mickiewicz University

The main goal of the research was to obtain a set of data for ability of speech in noise recognition using Polish word test (New Articulation Lists – NAL-93) with two different masking signals. The attempt was also made to standardise the background noise for Polish speech tests by creating babble noise for NAL-93. Two types of background noise were used for Polish word test – the babble noise and the speech noise. The short method was chosen in the study as it provided similar results to constant stimuli method using less word material. The experiment using both maskers was presented to 10 listeners with normal hearing.

The mean SRT values for NAL-93 were −3.4 dB SNR for speech noise and 3.0 dB SNR for babble noise. In this regard, babble noise provided more efficient results. However, the SRT parameter for speech noise was more similar to values obtained for other Polish speech tests. The measurement
of speech recognition using Polish word test is possible for both types of masking signals presented in the study. The decision as to which type of noise would be better in practice of hearing aid prosthetics remains an open-end question.
Keywords: NAL-93; babble noise; speech noise; speech-in-noise test; Speech Reception Threshold
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).


Brachmański S., Staroniewicz P. (1999), Phonetic structure of a test material used in subjective measurements of speech quality [in Polish], Speech and Language Technology, 3: 71–80.

Byrne D. (1977), The speech spectrum-some aspects of its significance for hearing aid selection and evaluation, British Journal of Audiology, 11(2): 40–46, doi: 10.3109/03005367709078831.

Chen M.S., Liu J.S., Chen W.R. (2014), Differences in auditory discrimination ability between visually impaired and normally sighted adults, Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, 32(44): 255–262, doi: 10.1080/21681015.2015.1049226.

Fastl H. (1993), A masking noise for speech intelligibility tests, Proceedings of TC Hearing, Acoustic Society of Japan, H-93-70.

Finney D.J. (1952), Statistical method in biological assay, London: C. Griffen, pp. 524–530.

Fontan L., Tardieu J., Gaillard P., Woisard V., Ruiz R. (2015), Relationship between speech intelligibility and speech comprehension in babble noise, Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 58(3): 977–986, doi: 10.1044/2015_JSLHR-H-13-0335.

Gundmi A., Himaja P., Dhamani A. (2018), Effectiveness of multitalker babble over speech noise and its implications: A comparative study, Indian Journal of Otology, 24: 88–90, doi: 10.4103/indianjotol.INDIANJOTOL-24-18.

Habasińska D., Skrodzka E., Bogusz-Witczak E. (2018), Development of Polish speech test signal and its comparison with International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), Archives of Acoustics, 43(2): 253–262, doi: 10.24425/122373.

Hall J.L., Flanagan J.L. (2010), Intelligibility and listener preference of telephone speech in the presence of babble noise, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127(1): 280–285, doi: 10.1121/1.3263603.

Holube I., Fredelake S., Vlaming M., Kollmeier B. (2010), Development and analysis of an International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), International Journal of Audiology, 49(12): 891–903, doi: 10.3109/14992027.2010.506889.

Jassem W. (1973), Fundamentals of phonetic acoustics [in Polish], Warszawa: PWN.

Kollmeier B. et al. (2015), The multilingual matrix test: principles, applications, and comparison across languages: preview, International Journal of Audiology, 54(Supp. 2): 3–16, doi: 10.3109/14992027.2015.1020971.

Krishnamurthy N., Hansen J.H.L. (2009), Babble noise: modeling, analysis and applications. IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, 17(7): 1394–1407, doi: 10.1109/TASL.2009.2015084.

Lorens A., Obrycka A., Piotrowska A. (2006), Validation of articulation lists according to Pruszewicz for evaluation of speech intelligibility in the presence of noise [in Polish], Audiofonologia, 29: 71–72.

Majewski W., Rothman H.B., Hollien H. (1977), Acoustic comparison of American English and Polish, Journal of Phonetics, 5(3): 247–251.

Miedema H.M., Outshoorn C.G. (2001), Annoyance from transportation noise: relationships with exposure metrics DNL and DENL and their confidence intervals, Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(4): 409–416, doi: 10.1289/ehp.01109409.

Ozimek E., Kutzner D. (2006), The Polish sentence test for speech intelligibility evaluations, Archives of Acoustics, 31(4): 431–438.

Ozimek E., Kutzner D., Sęk A., Wicher A. (2007), Polish Sentence Test for speech intelligibility measurements in masking conditions, 19th International Congress on Acoustics, September 2–7, 2007, Madrid, Spain.

Ozimek E., Kutzner D., Sęk A., Wicher A. (2009a), Polish sentence tests for measuring the intelligibility of speech in interfering noise, International Journal of Audiology, 48(7): 433–443, doi: 10.1080/14992020902725521.

Ozimek E., Kutzner D., Sęk A., Wicher A. (2009b), Development and evaluation of polish digit triplet test for auditory screening, Speech Communication, 51(4): 307–316, doi: 10.1016/j.specom.2008.09.007.

Ozimek E., Warzybok A., Kutzner D. (2010), Polish sentence matrix test for speech intelligibility measurement in noise, International Journal of Audiology, 49(6): 444–454, doi: 10.3109/14992021003681030.

Preis A., Kociński J., Hafke-Dys H., Wrzosek M. (2015), Audio-visual interactions in environment assessment, Science of the Total Environment, 523: 191–200, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.128.

Pruszewicz A., Demenko G. (2000), Speech audiometry [in Polish], [in:] Outline of Clinical Audiology, Pruszewicz A. [Ed.], Poznań: Scientific Publishers of Karol Marcinkowski Medical University in Poznań, pp. 248–254.

Pruszewicz A., Surmanowicz-Demenko G., Jastrzębska M. (2011), Polish tests for speech audiometry [in Polish], [in:] Selected problems of speech audiometry, Obrębowski A. [Ed.], Poznań: Scientific Publishers of Karol Marcinkowski Medical University in Poznań, pp. 95–96.

Schafer M.R. (2004), The Music of the Environment, [in:] Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music, Cox C., Warner D. [Ed.], New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group, pp. 29–38.

Schelenz A., Skrodzka E. (2018), Speech reception thresholds for Polish language word and sentence tests presented in noise, Archives of Acoustics, 43(4): 603–612, doi: 10.24425/aoa.2018.125154.

Skrodzka E. (2014), Speech audiometry [in Polish], [in:] Hearing healthcare profession, Hojan E. [Ed.], Poznań: Scientific Publishers of AMU, pp. 275–308.

Voss P., Tabry V., Zatorre R.J. (2015), Trade-off in the sound localization abilities of early blind individuals between the horizontal and vertical planes, The Journal of Neuroscience, 35(15): 6051–6056, doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.4544-14.2015.

Wilson R.H. (2003), Development of a speech-in-multitalker-babble paradigm to assess word-recognition performance, Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 14(9): 453–470.

Wilson R.H., Carnell C.S., Cleghorn A.L. (2007), The Words-in-Noise (WIN) test with multitalker babble and speech-spectrum noise maskers, Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 18(6): 522–529, doi: 10.3766/jaaa.18.6.7.

Wilson R.H., McArdle R.A., Smith S.L. (2007), An evaluation of the BKB–SIN, HINT, QuickSIN, and WIN materials on listeners with normal hearing and listeners with hearing loss, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50: 844–856, doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2007/059).

Zwicker E., Fastl H. (1990), Psychoacoustics. Facts and Models, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2020.134056