Archives of Acoustics, 46, 2, pp. 375–385, 2021
10.24425/aoa.2021.136590

Experimental Validation of the HVAC Humming-type Noise and Vibration in Model and Vehicle System Levels

Mohd Hafiz Abdul SATAR
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia

Ahmad Zhafran Ahmad MAZLAN
https://mechanical.eng.usm.my/index.php/ms/21-academic/134-zhafran
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia

Muhd Hidayat HAMDAN
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia

Mohd Syazwan Md ISA
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia

Muhd Abdul Rahman PAIMAN
Testing & Development, Vehicle Development & Engineering, Proton Holdings Berhad
Malaysia

Mohd Zukhairi Abd GHAPAR
Testing & Development, Vehicle Development & Engineering, Proton Holdings Berhad
Malaysia

The presence of noises in the vehicle cabin is an annoyance phenomenon which is significantly affected by the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. There are very limited studies reported on the specific type of noise characterisation and validation for both model and vehicle system levels. The present study developed a model of HVAC system that reflects the operation as in real vehicle, and the investigation of the HVAC components were carried out individually to determine which component contributes to the humming-type noise and vibration. The study was conducted under two conditions; idle speed of engine (850 rpm) and operating condition (850–1400 rpm). A ixed blower speed and fullface setting were applied throughout the experimental process. Three different sensors were used for the experiment, which are: accelerometer, tachometer, and microphone. From the results, the compressor and AC pipe components have contributed the most in generating the noise and vibration for both the model and vehicle systems. The findings also highlight that the humming-type noise and vibration were produced in the same operating frequency of 300–400 Hz and 100–300 Hz for idle and operating conditions, respectively, and this result was validated for both model and vehicle system levels.
Keywords: humming noise; HVAC system; vibration; compressor and AC pipe
Full Text: PDF

References

Aissaoui A. et al. (2015), Flow-induced noise optimization of SUV HVAC system using a lattice Boltzmann method, SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars – Mechanical Systems, 8(3): 1053–1062, doi: 10.4271/2015-01-2323.

Al-Badour F., Sunar M., Cheded L. (2011), Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time-frequency analysis and wavelet techniques, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 25(6): 2083–2101, doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2011.01.017.

Bel-Hassan M., Sardar A., Ghias R. (2008), CFD simulations of an automotive HVAC blower: Operating under stable and unstable flow conditions, SAE Technical Papers, 2008-01-0735, doi: 10.4271/2008-01-0735.

Bennouna S., Matharan T., Cheriaux O. (2018), Automotive HVAC noise reduction, SAE Technical Papers, 2018-01-1519, doi: 10.4271/2018-01-1519.

Brodie B.R., Takano Y., Gocho M. (2012), Evaporator with integrated ejector for automotive cabin cooling, SAE Technical Papers, 2012-01-1048, doi: 10.4271/2012-01-1048.

Daly S. (2006), Automotive Air Conditioning and Climate Control Systems, Butterworth-Heimenn, Burlington, MA, doi: 10.1016/b978-0-7506-6955-9.x5000-9.

Détry S., Manera J., Detandt Y., D’Udekem D. (2010), Aero-acoustic predictions of industrial dashboard HVAC systems, Noise Control Engineering Journal, 59(2): 177–185, doi: 10.3397/1.3545796.

Eilemann A. (1999), Practical noise and vibration optimization of HVAC systems, SAE Technical Papers, 1999-01-0867, doi: 10.4271/1999-01-0867.

Ene A., Catalina T., Vartires A. (2018), Determination of thermal and acoustic comfort inside a vehicle’s cabin, [In:] EENVIRO 2017 Workshop – Advances in Heat and Transfer in Built Environment, E3S Web of Conferences, Vol. 32, 6 pages, doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/20183201002.

Fyfe K.R., Munck E.D.S. (1997), Analysis of computed order tracking, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 11(2): 187–205, doi: 10.1006/mssp.1996.0056.

Gren E., Farrall M., Mendonça F., Sandhu K. (2012), CFD prediction of aeroacoustic noise generation in a HVAC duct, [In:] 18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference (33rd AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference), doi: 10.2514/6.2012-2068.

Kierkegaard A., West A., Caro S. (2016), HVAC noise simulations using direct and hybrid methods, [In:] 22nd AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, doi: 10.2514/6.2016-2855.

Kim T.G., Hong S.Y., Song J.H., Kwon H.W. (2016), An empirical formulation for predicting HVAC system noise in offshore plants using computational analysis, Noise Control Engineering Journal, 64(6): 716–726, doi: 10.3397/1/376414.

Ko Y. H., Mei L.X., Ripin Z.M. (2011), Tuned vibration absorber for suppression of hand-arm vibration in electric grass trimmer, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 41(5): 494–508, doi: 10.1016/j.ergon.2011.05.005.

Kurniawan D., Rogers E. (2011), Investigation of airflow induced whistle noise by HVAC control doors utilizing a ‘V-shape’ rubber seal, SAE Technical Papers, 2011-01-1615, doi: 10.4271/2011-01-1615.

Lee J.P., Kim H.L., Lee S.J. (2011), Large-scale PIV measurements of ventilation flow inside the passenger compartment of a real car, Journal of Visualization, 14(4): 321–329, doi: 10.1007/s12650-011-0095-9.

Leite R.P., Paul S., Gerges S.N.Y. (2009), A sound quality-based investigation of the HVAC system noise of an automobile model, Applied Acoustics, 70(4): 636–645, doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2008.06.010.

Mann A., Perot F., Meskine M., Kim M.S. (2015), Designing quieter HVAC systems coupling LBM and flow-induced noise source identification methods, [In:] 10th FKFS Conference Progress in Vehicle Aerodynamics and Thermal Management, Stuttgart.

Mavuri S.P., Watkins S., Wang X., St. Hill S., Weymouth D. (2008), An investigation of vehicle HVAC cabin noise, SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0836, doi: 10.4271/2008-01-0836.

Martinez R.M., Snellen M., Simons D.G. (2016), Determination of aircraft noise variability using an acoustic camera, [In:] 23rd International Congress of Sound and Vibration: From Ancient to Modern Acoustics, Athens, Greece.

Naidu M., Nehl T.W., Gopalakrishnan S., Würth L. (2005), Electric compressor drive with integrated electronics for 42 V automotive HVAC systems, SAE Technical Papers, 2005-01-1318, doi: 10.4271/2005-01-1318.

Oktav A. (2017), The effects of trunk cavity and air-gaps in the acoustic response of a passenger vehicle, Archives of Acoustics, 42(3): 433–440, doi: 10.1515/aoa-2017-0045.

Paiman M.A.R. et al. (2018), Measurement of the hissing-type noise and vibration of the automotive HVAC system, [In:] 2018 International Conference on Vibration, Sound and System Dynamics (ICVSSD 2018), MATEC Web Conferences, Vol. 217, Article No. 03002, doi: 10.1051/matecconf/201821703002.

Pallas M.A., Lelong J., Chatagnon R. (2011), Characterisation of tram noise emission and contribution of the noise sources, Applied Acoustics, 72(7): 437–450, doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2011.01.008.

Pérot F. et al. (2013), HVAC noise predictions using a Lattice Boltzmann method, [In:] 19th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, doi: 10.2514/6.2013-2228.

Prasanth B., Wagh S., Hudson D. (2011), Alternator whining noise-a sound quality concern in passenger car, SAE Technical Papers, 2011-26-0018, doi: 10.4271/2011-26-0018.

Putner J., Lohrmann M., Fastl H. (2013), Analysis of the contributions from vehicle cabin surfaces to the interior noise, [In:] 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering, Inter-Noise 2013, Innsbruck, Austria.

Qatu M.S., Abdelhamid M.K., Pang J., Sheng G. (2009), Overview of automotive noise and vibration, International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration, 5(1–2): 1–35, doi: 10.1504/IJVNV.2009.029187.

Saeki N., Kamiyama K., Uomoto M., Ishihara Y. (1997), Development of low noise blower fan, SAE Technical Papers, 971842, doi: 10.4271/971842.

Sah M., Srinivasan K., Mendonca F., Pai N. (2013), Prediction of HVAC system aero/acoustic noise generation and propagation using CFD, SAE Technical Papers, 2013-01-0856, doi: 10.4271/2013-01-0856.

Satar M.H.A. et al. (2018), Characterization of the humming type noise and vibration of the automotive HVAC system, International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, 16: 6634–6648, doi: 10.15282/ijame.16.2.2019.12.0499.

Satar M.H.A. et al. (2019), Application of the structural dynamic modification method to reduce the vibration of the vehicle HVAC system, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1262: 012034, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1262/1/012034.

Schillemeit B., Cucuz S. (2002), Comparison of experimental NVH analysis techniques on automotive HVAC systems, SAE Technical Papers, 2002-01-1173, doi: 10.4271/2002-01-1173.

Sharma R.K., Parbhot C., Thakur S., Thakur V. (2012), Analysing reliability aspects of HVAC systems – A case, Advanced Materials Research, 488–489: 1813–1817, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.488-489.1813.

Singh S., Mohanty A.R. (2018), HVAC noise control using natural materials to improve vehicle interior sound quality, Applied Acoustics, 140: 100–109, doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2018.05.013.

Song J., Bae S.Y., Yoon K. (2002), Query by humming: Matching humming query to polyphonic audio, [In:] Proceedings. IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2002, Vol.1, pp. 329–332, doi: 10.1109/ICME.2002.1035785..

Subiantoro A., Ooi K.T., Stimming U. (2014), Energy saving measures for automotive air conditioning (AC) system in the tropics, [In:] International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference, Paper 1361, http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/iracc/1361.

Thawani P., Liu Z., Venkatappa S. (2005), Objective metrics for automotive refrigerant system induced transients, SAE Technical Papers, 2005-01-2501, doi: 10.4271/2005-01-2501.

Thawani P.T., Sinadinos S., Black J. (2013), Automotive AC system induced refrigerant hiss and gurgle, SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars – Mechanical Systems, 6(2): 1115–1119, doi: 10.4271/2013-01-1890.

Tiwari S., Agarwal R., Saxena P., Acre J. (2009), CFD-based design enhancements in passenger vehicle HVAC module, SAE Technical Papers, 2009-26-0058, doi: 10.4271/2009-26-0058.

Toksoy C. et al. (1995), Design of an automotive HVAC blower wheel for flow, noise and structural integrity, SAE Technical Papers, 950437, doi: 10.4271/950437.

Wang X. (2010), Vehicle Noise and Vibration Refinement, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Melbourne.

Wang X., Watkins S., Charles S. (2018), Noise refinement solutions for vehicle HVAC systems, SAE Technical Paper, 2007-01-2184, doi: 10.4271/2007-01-2184.

Wiart C.C.D. et al. (2010), Validation of a hybrid CAA method: Noise generated by a flap in a simplified HVAC duct, [In:] 16th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, doi: 10.2514/6.2010-3995.

Weyna S., Mickiewicz W. (2014), Multi-modal acoustic flow decomposition examined in a hard walled cylindrical duct, Archives of Acoustics, 39(2): 289–296, doi: 10.2478/aoa-2014-0033.

Willemsen A.M., Poradek F., Rao M.D. (2009), Reduction of noise in an excavator cabin using order tracking and ultrasonic leak detection, Noise Control Engineering Journal, 57(5): 400–412, doi: 10.3397/1.3207865.

Xie X.-Z. (2015), Noise optimization design on the exhaust muffler of a special vehicle based on the improved genetic algorithm, Journal of Vibroengineering, 17(8): 4625–4639.




DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2021.136590

Copyright © Polish Academy of Sciences & Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT PAN)