Archives of Acoustics, 47, 1, pp. 89–95, 2022

Electrode Mass Loading Effects on Different Piezoelectric Substrates for Saw Delay Lines: A Comparative FEM Analysis

Sheeja P. GEORGE
ORCID ID 0000-0001-7348-5748
College of Engineering

Johney ISSAC
Department of Instrumentation, CUSAT

Amaljyothi College of Engineering

Several modelling techniques are currently available to analyse the efficiency of inter-digital transducers (IDTs) fabricated on piezoelectric substrates for producing surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Impulse response method, equivalent circuit method, coupling of modes, transmission matrix method, and numerical techniques are some of the popular ones for this. Numerical techniques permit modelling to be carried out with any number of finger electrode pairs with required boundary conditions on any material of interest. In this work, we describe numerical modelling of SAW devices using ANSYS to analyse the effect of mass loading, a major secondary effect of IDTs on the performance of SAW devices. The electrode thickness of the IDT influences the resonance frequency of the SAW delay line. The analysis has been carried out for different electrode materials, aluminium, copper, and gold, for different substrate materials, barium titanate (BaTiO3), X-Y lithium niobate (LiNbO3), lithium tantalate (LiTaO3), and the naturally available quartz. The results are presented and discussed.
Keywords: inter-digital transducers; surface acoustic wave devices; finite element analysis; numerical modelling and simulation; ANSYS.
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).


Abraham N., Krishnakumar R., Unni C., Philip D. (2019), Simulation studies on the responses of ZnOCuO/CNT nanocomposite based SAW sensor to various volatile organic chemicals, Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices, 4(1): 125–131, doi: 10.1016/j.jsamd.2018.12.006.

Atashbar M.Z., Bazuin B.J., Krishnamurthy S. (2003), Design and simulation of SAW sensors for wireless sensing, Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2003, 1(1): 584–589, doi: 10.1109/ICSENS.2003.1279005.

Auld B.A. (1973), Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids, John Wiley & Sons: New York.

Bechmann R., Ballato A.D., Lukaszek T.J. (1962), Higher-order temperature coefficients of the elastic stiffinesses and compliances of alpha-quartz, Proceedings of the IRE, 50(8): 1812–1822, doi: 10.1109/JRPROC.1962.288222.

Bui T.H., Duc T.B., Duc T.C. (2015), An optimisation of IDTs for surface acoustic wave sensor, International Journal of Nanotechnology, 12(5/6/7): 485–495, doi: 10.1504/IJNT.2015.067906

Campbell C. (2012), Surface Acoustic Wave Devices and Their Signal Processing Applications, Academic Press: San Diego.

Datta S. (1986), Surface Acoustic Wave Devices, Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs.

El Gowini M.M., Moussa W.A. (2010), A finite element model of a MEMS-based surface acoustic wave hydrogen sensor, Sensors, 10(2): 1232–1250, doi: 10.3390/s100201232.

Gamble K.J., Malocha D.C. (2002), Simulation of short LSAW transducers including electrode mass loading and finite finger resistance, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 49(1): 47–56, doi: 10.1109/58.981383.

Gualtieri J.G., Kosinski J.A., Ballato A. (1992), Piezoelectric materials for saw applications, IEEE 1992 Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, pp. 403–412, Arizona, doi: 10.1109/ultsym.1992.275972.

Hamidon M.N., Mousavi S.A., Isa M.M., Ismail A., Mahdi M.A. (2009), Finite element method on mass loading effect for gallium phosphate surface acoustic wave resonators, Proceedings of the World Congress Engineering, 1: 447–452, London.

Ionescu V. (2015), Design and analysis of a Rayleigh saw resonator for gas detecting applications, Romanian Journal of Physics, 60(3–4): 502–511.

Ippolito S.J., Kalantar-Zadeh K., Powell D.A., Wlodarski W. (2003), A 3-dimensional approach for simulating acoustic wave propagation in layered SAW devices, IEEE Symposium on Ultrasonics, 1: 303–306, Honolulu, HI, USA, doi: 10.1109/ULTSYM. 2003.1293411.

Jaffe H., Berlincourt D.A. (1965), Piezoelectric transducer materials, Proceedings of the IEEE, 53(10): 1372–1386, doi: 10.1109/PROC.1965.4253.

Klymyshyn D.M., Kannan T., Kachayev A. (2009), Finite element modelling of electrode mass loading effects in longitudinal leaky SAW resonators, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 51(21): 390–395, doi: 10.1002/mop.24042.

Lerch R. (1990), Simulation of piezoelectric devices by two-and three-dimensional finite elements, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 37(3): 233–247, doi: 10.1109/58.55314.

Lukose V., Nemade H.B. (2019), Finite element simulation of one-port surface acoustic wave resonator with thick interdigital transducer for gas sensing, Microsystem Technologies, 25(2): 441–446, doi: 10.1007/s00542018-4015-y.

Morgan D. (2007), Surface Acoustic Wave Filters with Applications to Electronic Communications and Signal Processing, Academic Press.

Namdeo A.K., Nemade H.B. (2013), Simulation on effects of electrical loading due to interdigital transducers in surface acoustic wave resonator, Procedia Engineering, 64: 322–330, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2013.09.104.

Namdeo A.K., Nemade H.B., Ramakrishnan N. (2010), FEM simulation of generation of bulk acoustic waves and their effects in saw devices, Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference, Bagalore, India.

Powell D.A., Kalantar-Zadeh K., Ippolito S.J., Wlodarski W. (2002), A layered SAW device based on ZnO/LiTaO/sub 3/ for liquid media sensing applications, IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1: 493–496, Munich, Germany, doi: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2002.1193449.

Powell D.A., Kalantar-Zadeh K., Wlodarski W. (2004), Numerical calculation of SAW sensitivity: application to ZnO/LiTaO3 transducers, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 115(2–3): 456–461, doi: 10.1016/ j.sna.2004.05.031.

Ramakrishnan N., Palathinkal R. P., Nemade H.B. (2010), Mass loading effects of high aspect ratio structures grown over saw resonator, Sensor Letters, 8(2): 253–257, doi: 10.1166/sl.2010.1258.

Schulz M.B., Matsinger J.H. (1972), Rayleigh-wave electromechanical coupling constant, Applied Physics Letters, 20: 367–369, doi: 10.1063/1.1654190.

Tancrell R.H. (1977), Principles of surface wave filter design, [in:] Surface Wave Filters: Design Construction and Use, Mathews H. [Ed.], pp. 109–164, Wiley Interscience, New York.

Wang T., Green R., Guldiken R., Wang J., Mohapatra S., Mohapatra S.S. (2019), Finite element analysis for surface acoustic wave device characteristic properties and sensitivity, Sensors, 19(8): 1749, doi: 10.3390/s19081749.

Warner A.W., Onoe M., Coquin G.A. (1967), Determination of elastic and piezoelectric constants for crystals in class (3 m), The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 42: 1223–1231, doi: 10.1121/1.1910709.

Yunusa Z., Hamidon M.N., Kaiser A., Awang Z. (2014), Gas sensors: A review, Sensors and Transducers, 168(4): 61–75, doi: 10.13074/jent.2015.12.153163.

Zou J., Lam C.S. (2016), Electrode design of AlN lamb wave resonators, IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IFCS), pp. 1–5, New Orleans, USA, doi: 10.1109/FCS.2016.7563573.

DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2022.140735