Archives of Acoustics, 47, 3, pp. 389–397, 2022

Ultrasonic Experimental Evaluation of the Numerical Model of the Internal Fluid Flow in the Kidney Cooling Jacket

Barbara Jadwiga GAMBIN
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Doctoral Studies of Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences

Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Kidney Cooling Jacket (KCJ) preserves the kidney graft, wrapped in the jacket, against the too fast time of temperature rise during the operation of connecting a cooled transplant to the patient’s bloodstream. The efficiency of KCJ depends on the stationarity of the fluid flow and its spatial uniformity. In this paper, the fluid velocity field inside the three different KCJ prototypes has been measured using the 20 MHz ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. The simplified 2D geometrical model of the prototypes has been presented using COMSOL-Multiphysics to simulate the fluid flow assuming the laminar flow model. By comparing the numerical results with experimental data, the simplified 2D model is shown to be accurate enough to predict the flow distribution of the internal fluid velocity field within the KCJ. The discrepancy between the average velocity measured using the 20 MHz Doppler and numerical results was mainly related to the sensitivity of the velocity measurements to a change of the direction of the local fluid flow stream. Flux direction and average velocity were additionally confirmed by using commercial colour Doppler imaging scanner. The current approach showed nearly 90% agreement of the experimental results and numerical simulations. It was important for justifying the use of numerical modelling in designing the baffles distribution (internal walls in the flow space) for obtaining the most spatially uniform field of flow velocity.
Keywords: multi-canal system; fluid flow prediction; cooling jacket; flow Doppler measurement
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).


Balbis S., Guiot C., Roatta S., Arina R., Todros T. (2004), Assessment of the efect of vessel curvature on Doppler measurements in steady flow, Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 30(5): 639–645, doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2004.02.006.

Bambi G. et al. (2004), A novel ultrasound instrument for investigation of arterial mechanics, Ultrasonics, 42(1): 731–737, doi: 10.1016/j.ultras.2003.11.008.

Breda A. et al. (2022), Intracorporeal versus extracorporeal robot-assisted kidney autotransplantation: Experience of the ERUS RAKT working group, European Urology, 81(2): 168–175, doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2021.07.023.

Evans D.H., Jensen J.A., Nielsen M.B. (2011), Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging, Interface Focus, 1(4): 490–502, doi: 10.1098/rsfs.2011.0017.

Heylen L., Pirenne J., Naesens M., Jochmans I. (2021), “Time is tissue” – A minireview on the importance of donor nephrectomy, donor hepatectomy, and implantation times in kidney and liver transplantation, American Journal of Transplantation, 21(8): 2653–2661, doi: 10.1111/ajt.16580.

Khan T. et al. (2021), Protection from the second warm ischemic injury in kidney transplantation using an ex vivo porcine model and thermally insulating jackets, Transplantation Proceedings, 53(2): 750–754, doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.01.037.

Korczak-Cegielska I., Breda A., Decewicz A., Brodaczewski K. (2022), Kidney cooling system, Accepted US Patent Application, No US17/666,010 (February 7, 2022).

Moers C., Pirenne J., Paul A., Ploeg R.J. (2012), Machine perfusion or cold storage in deceaseddonor kidney transplantation, The New England Journal of Medicine, 366(8): 770–771, doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1111038.

Nowicki A. et al. (2019), Assessment of high frequency imaging and Doppler system for the measurements of the radial artery flow-mediated dilation, Archives of Acoustics, 44(4): 637–644, doi: 10.24425/aoa.2019.129276.

Secomski W., Nowicki A., Tortoli P., Olszewski R. (2009), Multigate Doppler measurements of ultrasonic attenuation and blood hematocrit in human arteries, Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 35(2): 230–236, doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2008.08.009.

DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2022.142004