Archives of Acoustics, 48, 4, pp. 465–473, 2023

Modulation Mechanism of Acoustic Scattering in Underwater Corner Reflectors with Acoustic Metasurfaces

Jiaman DU
Jiangsu University of Science and Technology

Zilong PENG
Jiangsu University of Science and Technology

Lili GE
Jiangsu University of Science and Technology

Shijin LYU
1) Jiangsu University of Science and Technology 2) China Ship Science Research Center

Fulin ZHOU
Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Shanghai Research Institute of Materials

Using the tunderwater corner reflector (CR) to simulate the acoustic scattering characteristics of the military target is a new technology to counter active sonar detection. Existing underwater CRs only have the ability to interfere with the acoustic field, but have limitations in acoustic wave modulation. Therefore, acoustic metasurfaces applied on CRs to enhance the ability of acoustic wave modulation has a great application prospect. A fast prediction method based on the Kirchhoff approximation (KA) and the ray tracing theory is proposed to calculate the acoustic scattering characteristics of CR with acoustic metasurfaces in grooves array type. The accuracy of the method is verified by the finite element method (FEM) simulation. The modulation effect of CR with grooves array in different gradient combinations on the structural scattering acoustic field is analyzed. The research shows that the CR with different combinations of the acoustic metasurface has an obvious modulation effect on the amplitude of the acoustic waves and the deflection of acoustic field. In particular, the grooves array in combination with positive and negative gradients has an obvious deflection impact on the scattering acoustic field.
Keywords: acoustic scattering; metasurface; ray tracing; corner reflector; virtual source method.
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © 2024 The Author(s). This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International CC BY 4.0.


Chen J.Q., Zhao J.J. (2014), Fidelity analysis of a scale target simulation [in Chinese], Torpedo Technology, 22(6): 442–446,

Chen W.J. (2012) Research on the Backscattering Characteristics of Underwater Corner Reflector Acoustic Markers, Ph.D. Thesis, Harbin Engineering University,

Chen W.J., Sun H. (2013), Beam bouncing method for calculating the scattered sound field of underwater concave targets [in Chinese], Acta Acoustic, 38(02): 147–152, doi: 10.15949/j.cnki.0371-0025.2013.02.018.

Chen X. et al. (2018), Sound scattering characteristics of underwater elastic corner reflector [in Chincese], Acta Armamentarii, 39(11): 2236–2242.

Chen X., Luo Y. (2019), Scattering characteristics of underwater rigid corner reflectors [in Chinese], Technical Acoustics, 38(03): 278–283, doi: 10.16300/j.cnki.1000-3630.2019.03.007.

Christensen J., Fernandez-Domingues A.I., de Leon-Perez F., Martin-Moreno L., Garcia-Vidal F.J. (2007), Collimation of sound assisted by acoustic surface waves, Nature Physics, 3(12): 851–852, doi: 10.1038/nphys774.

Fan J., Wang W.L., Zhou L.K. (2012), Planar elements method for predicting echo characteristics of sonar targets, Journal of Ship Mechanics, 16(1–2): 171–180, doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-7294.2012.01.020.

Huang P.K. (1993), Radar Target Characteristic Signal, Beijing: China Astronautic Publishing House Press.

Li Y., Liang B., Gu Z., Zou X., Cheng J. (2013), Reflected wavefront manipulation based on ultrathin planar acoustic metasurfaces, Scientific Reports, 3(1): 2546, doi: 10.1038/srep02546.

Lu G. (2009), Discussion on the technology of attracting and sweeping active attack mines, Mine Warfare and Ship Self-Defence, 17(04): 1–6+29,

Lu T., Wang Y., Yang H., Huang X., Zhou Y., Wu J. (2020), Absorbing properties of metamaterial dihedral corner reflector, Materials Research Express, 7(2): 025802, doi: 10.1088/2053-1591/ab7567.

Möller T., Trumbore B. (1997), Fast, minimum storage ray-triangle intersection, Journal of Graphics Tools, 2(1): 21–28, doi: 10.1080/10867651.1997.10487468.

Tian H.W., Shen H.Y., Zhang X.G., Li W., Jiang W.X., Cui T.J. (2020), Terahertz metasurfaces: Toward multifunctional and programmable wave manipulation, Frontiers in Physics, 8: 584077, doi: 10.3389/fphy.2020.584077.

Xiong Q.L. (2008), Integrated Electronic Warfare: The Killer Tool of Information Warfare [in Chinese], 2nd ed., National Defense Industry Press.

Xu H.-Z., Yuan Y.-Y., Liu X.-H., Yu Y. (2017), On performance analysis of linear array decoy in confronting smart torpedo [in Chinese], Ship Science and Technology, 39(5): 135–138,

Yang H., Feng K., Li R., Yan J. (2022), Lamb wave propagation control based on modified GSL, Frontiers in Physics, 10: 909318, doi: 10.3389/fphy.2022.909318.

Yu M. et al. (2021), Strength analysis of scattering targets based on acoustic metasurfaces, [in:] Proceedings of the 18th Symposium on Ship Underwater Noise, pp. 1031–1037.

Yuan S.M., Chen A.-L., Wang Y.S. (2020), Switchable multifunctional fish-bone elastic metasurface for transmitted plate wave modulation, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 470: 115168, doi: 10.1016/ j.jsv.2019.115168.

Zhao J., Li B., Chen Z.N., Qui C.-W. (2013), Redirection of sound waves using acoustic metasurface, Applied Physics Letters, 103(15): 151604, doi: 10.1063/1.4824758.

Zhao S.D., Chen A.-L., Wang Y.-S., Zhang C. (2018), Continuously tunable acoustic metasurface for transmitted wavefront modulation, Physical Review Applied, 10(5): 054016, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.10.054066.

Zhu Y.F. (2018), Sound Manipulation by Acoustic Metasurfaces and Its Applications, Ph.D. Thesis, Nanjing University,

DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2023.146643