Research and Medical Transcranial Doppler System
The digital signal processing in digiTDS is partitioned between hardware and software parts. The hardware part (based on FPGA) executes a signal demodulation and reduces data stream. The software part (PC) performs the Doppler processing and display tasks. The hardware-software partitioning allowed to build a flexible Doppler platform at a relatively low cost.
The digiTDS design fulfills all necessary medical standards being a new useful tool in the transcranial field as well as in heart velocimetry research.
M. Ali, D. Magee, U. Dasgupta, Signal processing overview of ultrasound systems for medical
imaging, Texas Instruments, White Paper, SPRAB12, 2008.
N. Aydin, L. Fan, D. H. Evans, “Quadrature-to-directional format conversion of Doppler signals
using digital methods,” Physiol. Meas., Vol. 15, pp. 181-199, 1994.
S. A. Bassam, M. M. Ebrahimi, A. Kwan, M. Helaoui, M. P. Aflaki, O. Hammi, M. Fattouche,
F. M. Ghannouchi, “A generic architecture for smart multi-standard software defined radio
systems,” presented at the SDR'09 Technical Conference and Product Exposition, Washington,
D.C., USA, December 1-4, 2009.
S. Bjaerum, H. Torp, “Statistical evaluation of clutter filters in color flow imaging,”
Ultrasonics, Vol. 38, pp. 376-380, 2000.
J. H. Chang, L. Sun, J.T. Yen, K. K. Shung, “Low-cost, high-speed back-end processing system
for high-frequency ultrasound B-mode imaging,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics,
Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 56, No. 7, 2009.
P. Garcia, K. Compton, M. Schulte, E. Blem, W. Fu, “An overview of reconfigurable hardware
in embedded systems,” EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems, Volume 2006, Article ID
F. J. Harris, Multirate signal processing for communication systems, Prentice Hall PTR, ISBN
E. Hogenauer, “An economical class of digital filters for decimation and interpolation,” IEEE
Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 29, pp. 155-162, 1981.
A. P. Kadi, T. Loupas, “On the performance of regression and step-initialized IIR clutter filters
for color Doppler systems in diagnostic medical ultrasound,” IEEE Transactions on
Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 927-937, 1995.
M. Lewandowski, M. Walczak, A. Nowicki, “Compact modular Doppler system with digital
RF processing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, Roma, Italy,
September 20-23, 2009, pp. 1848-1851.
R. G. Lyons, Understanding digital signal processing, second edition. Prentice Hall, Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey 2004, chapter. 10.5.
D. Martinez-Nieto, M. McDonnell, P. Carlston, K. Reynolds, V. Santos, “Digital signal
processing on Intel® architecture,” Intel® Technology Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2009.
J. H. Reed, Software Radio: A modern approach to radio engineering, Prentice Hall, ISBN
S. Ricci, A. Dallai, E. Boni, L. Bassi, F. Guidi, A. Cellai, P. Tortoli, “Embedded system for
real-time digital processing of medical ultrasound Doppler signals,” EURASIP Journal on
Advances in Signal Processing, Volume 2008, Article ID 418235, 2008.
S. Taylor, Intel integrated performance primitives, Intel Press, ISBN 978-0971786134, 2004.
A. C. H. Yu, K. W. Johnston, R. S. C. Cobbold, “Frequency-based signal processing for
ultrasound color flow imaging,” Canadian Acoustics, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 11-23, 2007.
RIMED Digi-Lite documentation:
SONARA TCD System documentation:
DWL Multi-Dop X Digital documentation: