Archives of Acoustics, 45, 4, pp. 601–611, 2020

Noise Exposure and Job Stress – a Structural Equation Model in Textile Industries

Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iran, Islamic Republic of

Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iran, Islamic Republic of

Hamedan University of Medical Sciences
Iran, Islamic Republic of

Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences
Iran, Islamic Republic of

Qazvin University of Medical Sciences
Iran, Islamic Republic of

Zabol University of Medical Sciences
Iran, Islamic Republic of

Saveh University of Medical Sciences
Iran, Islamic Republic of

Noise exposure is one of the most important physical agents in the workplace which can induce job stress in several ways. The aim of this study was to model the interactions between independent and mediating variables and job stress using structural equation modeling. In this study, Weinstein’s noise sensitivity scale, noise annoyance questionnaire, Health and Safety Executive (HSE) job stress questionnaire and job satisfaction scale were used. To assess worker’s noise exposure, the 8-hours equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (LAeq;8 h), was measured based on ISO 9612 (2009). To achieve the aims of study, the structural equation model was run using R software 3.4.1 and Cytoscape software 3.6.0. Based on the results, while there was a direct positive correlation of noise exposure on total job stress, there were also indirect positive effects through job satisfaction and noise sensitivity as mediator variables. Using hearing protective devices negatively affected total job stress through a direct pathway and an indirect pathway when job satisfaction was a mediator variable. Regarding the total effect of noise exposure and using hearing protection devices on job stress subscales, it can be concluded that noise exposure and using hearing protection devices had greatest effect on colleagues support and demand, respectively. It can be concluded that noise exposure and lack of hearing protective devices have a significant positive effect on job stress among workers of a textile industry. In addition to the direct effect, this factor can induce job stress through noise sensitivity, job satisfaction and noise annoyance. Therefore, measures which can decrease any of the mentioned factors, also can alleviate job stress.
Keywords: noise exposure; noise annoyance; noise sensitivity; job stress; job satisfaction; hearing protective devices
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).


Abbasi M. et al. (2019), Assessment of role of job components and individual parameters on the raised blood pressure in a noisy industry, Archives of Acoustics, 44(3): 575–584, doi: 10.24425/aoa.2019.129272.

Abbasi M., Monazzam M.R., Akbarzadeh A., Zakerian S.A., Ebrahimi M.H. (2015a), Impact of wind turbine sound on general health, sleep disturbance and annoyance of workers: a pilot-study in Manjil wind farm, Iran, Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 13(1): 71, doi: 10.1186/s40201-015-0225-8.

Abbasi M., Monnazzam M.R., Zakerian S., Yousefzadeh A. (2015b), Effect of wind turbine noise on workers' sleep disorder: a case study of Manjil wind farm in northern Iran, Fluctuation and Noise Letters, 14(02): 1550020, doi: 10.1142/S0219477515500200.

Abbasi M. et al. (2020), Effect of personality traits on sensitivity, annoyance and loudness perception of low- and high-frequency noise, Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control, 1461348420945818, doi: 10.1177/1461348420945818.

Alimohammadi I., Nassiri P., Azkhosh M., Sabet M., Hosseini M. (2006), Reliability and validity of the Persian translation of the Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale, Psychological Research, 9(1–2): 74–87.

Azad M.E., Gholami M.F. (2011), Reliability and validity assessment for the HSE job stress questionnaire, International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 4(4): 291–297.

Babisch W. (2003), The noise/stress concept, risk assessment and research needs, Noise and Health, 4(16): 1–11.

Babisch W. et al. (2013), Noise annoyance – A modifier of the association between noise level and cardiovascular health?, Science of the Total Environment, 452–453: 50–57, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.034.

Beheshtifar M., Hoseinifar H., Moghadam M. (2011), Effect procrastination on work-related stress, European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 38: 59–64.

Berglund B., Lindvall T., Schwela D.H. (1995), Guidelines for community noise. World Health Organization.

Clegg A. (2001), Occupational stress in nursing: a review of the literature, Journal of Nursing Management, 9(2): 101–106, doi:10.1046/j.1365-2834.2001.00216.x.

Cooper C.L, Marshall J. (2013), Occupational sources of stress: A review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health, [In:] Cooper C.L. (Ed.), From Stress to Wellbeing, Vol. 1, pp. 3–23, Palgrave Macmillan, London, doi: 10.1057/9781137310651_1.

Ekehammar B., Dornic S. (1990), Weinstein's noise sensitivity scale: reliability and construct validity, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70(1): 129–130, doi: 10.2466/pms.1990.70.1.129.

Evans G.W, Johnson D. (2000), Stress and open-office noise, Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5): 779–783, doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.779.

Fairbrother K., Warn J. (2003), Workplace dimensions, stress and job satisfaction, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(1): 8–21, doi: 10.1108/02683940310459565.

Haradhan M. (2012), The occupational stress and risk of it among the employees, International Journal of Mainstream Social Science, 2: 17–34.

Hill E.M., Billington R., Krageloh C. (2014), Noise sensitivity and diminished health: testing moderators and mediators of the relationship, Noise and Health, 16(68): 47–56, doi: 10.4103/1463-1741.127855.

ISO 9612:2009 (2009), Acoustics – Determination of occupational noise exposure – Engineering method, International Standards Organisation.

ISO/TS 15666:2003 (2003), Acoustics – Assessment of noise annoyance by means of social and socio-acoustic surveys, International Organization for Standardization.

Jeffery R.D., Krogh C., Horner B. (2013), Adverse health effects of industrial wind turbines', Canadian Family Physician, 59(5): 473–475.

Job R.F.S. (1988), Community response to noise: A review of factors influencing the relationship between noise exposure and reaction, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 83(3): 991–1001, doi: 10.1121/1.396524.

Job R.F.S. (1999), Noise sensitivity as a factor influencing human reaction to noise, Noise and Health, 1(3): 57–68.

Khoshakhlagh A.H., Ghasemi M. (2017), Occupational noise exposure and hearing impairment among spinning workers in Iran, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 19(5): e42712, doi: 10.5812/ircmj.42712.

Kishikawa H., Matsui T., Uchiyama I., Miyakawa M., Hiramatsu K., Stansfeld S. A. (2009), Noise sensitivity and subjective health: questionnaire study conducted along trunk roads in Kusatsu, Japan, Noise and Health, 11(43): 111–117, doi: 10.4103/1463-1741.50696.

Krogh C.M., Wilson E.J., Harrington M.E. (2019), Wind turbine incident/Complaint Reports in Ontario, Canada: A review – why are they important?, Open Access Library Journal, 6(2): 1–12, doi: 10.4236/oalib.1105200.

Leather P., Beale D., Sullivan L. (2003), Noise, psychosocial stress and their interaction in the workplace, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(2): 213–222, doi: 10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00082-8.

Lee P.J., Lee B.K., Jeon J.Y., Zhang M., Kang J. (2016), Impact of noise on self-rated job satisfaction and health in open-plan offices: a structural equation modelling approach, Ergonomics, 59(2): 222–234, doi: 10.1080/00140139.2015.1066877.

Ljungberg J.K., Neely G. (2007), Stress, subjective experience and cognitive performance during exposure to noise and vibration, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27(1): 44–54, doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.12.003.

Marcatto F., Colautti L., Larese Filon F., Luis O., Ferrante D. (2014), The HSE Management Standards Indicator Tool: concurrent and construct validity, Occupational Medicine, 64(5): 365–371, doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqu038.

Marchand A., Demers A., Durand P. (2005), Do occupation and work conditions really matter? A longitudinal analysis of psychological distress experiences among Canadian workers, Sociology of Health and Illness, 27(5): 602–627, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9566.2005.00458.x.

Maschke C., Harder J., Ising H., Hecht K., Thierfelder W. (2002), Stress hormone changes in persons exposed to simulated night noise, Noise and Health, 5: 35–45.

Melamed S., Rabinowitz S., Green M.S. (1994), Noise exposure, noise annoyance, use of hearing protection devices and distress among blue-collar workers, Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 20(4): 294–300, doi: 10.5271/sjweh.1395.

Michie S. (2002), Causes and management of stress at work, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(1): 67–72, doi: 10.1136/oem.59.1.67.

Monazzam M.R. et al. (2018), Investigation of occupational noise annoyance in a wind turbine power plant, Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control, 38(2): 798–807, doi: 10.1177/1461348418769162.

Mursali A., Basuki E., Dharmono S. (2016), Relationship between noise and job stress at a private thread spinning company, Universa Medicina, 28(1): 8–16, doi: 10.18051/UnivMed.2009.v28.8-16.

Nam S.-J. et al. (2016), Job stress and job satisfaction among health-care workers of endoscopy units in Korea, Clinical Endoscopy, 49(3): 266– 272, doi: 10.5946/ce.2015.085.

Poursadeghiyan M., Abbasi M., Mehri A., Hami M., Raei M., Ebrahimi M.H. (2016), Relationship between job stress and anxiety, depression and job satisfaction in nurses in Iran, The Social Sciences, 11(9): 2349–2355, doi: 10.36478/sscience.2016.2349.2355.

Sun K., De Coensel B., Echevarria Sanchez G.M., Van Renterghem T., Botteldooren D. (2018), Effect of interaction between attention focusing capability and visual factors on road traffic noise annoyance, Applied Acoustics, 134: 16–24, doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2018.01.001.

Szychowska M., Hafke-Dys H., Preis A., Kociński J., Kleka P. (2018), The influence of audio-visual interactions on the annoyance ratings for wind turbines, Applied Acoustics, 129: 190–203, doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2017.08.003.

Vassie K., Richardson M. (2017), Effect of self-adjustable masking noise on open-plan office worker’s concentration, task performance and attitudes, Applied Acoustics, 119: 119–127, doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2016.12.011.

Wanous J.P, Reichers A.E., Hudy M.J. (1997), Overall job satisfaction: how good are single-item measures?, Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2): 247–252, doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.82.2.247.

Waye K.P., Bengtsson J., Rylander R., Hucklebridge F., Evans P., Clow A. (2002), Low frequency noise enhances cortisol among noise sensitive subjects during work performance, Life Sciences, 70(7): 745–758, doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01450-3.

Zhang L., Kang J., Luo H., Zhong B. (2018), Drivers’ physiological response and emotional evaluation in the noisy environment of the control cabin of a shield tunneling machine, Applied Acoustics, 138: 1–8, doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2018.01.023.

Zijlema W.L., Morley D.W., Stolk R.P., Rosmalen J.G. (2015), Noise and somatic symptoms: A role for personality traits?, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 218(6): 543–549, doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.05.001.

DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2020.135248