Archives of Acoustics, 45, 4, pp. 733–746, 2020

Analysis on Acoustic Disturbance Signals Expected During Partial Discharge Measurements in Power Transformers

Opole University of Technology

This paper presents comparative analysis of various acoustic signals expected during partial discharge (PD) measurements in operating power transformer. Main purpose of the paper is to yield relevant and reliable method to distinguish between various acoustic emission (AE) signals emitted by PD and other sources, with particular consideration of real-life results rather than laboratory simulations. Therefore, selected examples of real-life AE signals registered in seven different power transformers, under normal operation conditions, within few years are showed and analyzed. Five scenarios are investigated, which represent five types of AE sources: PD generated by artificial sources, and next four real-life sources (including PD in working transformer, oil flow, oil pumps and core). Several different signal processing methods are applied and compared in order to identify the PD signals. As a result, an energy patterns analysis based on the wavelet decomposition is found as the most reliable tool for identification of PD signals. The presented results may significantly support the process of interpretation of the PD measurement results, and may be used by field engineers as well as other researchers involved in PD analysis using AE method. Finally, observed properties also provide a solid basis for establishing or improving complete classification method based on the artificial intelligence algorithms.
Keywords: acoustic emission; partial discharge; insulation system; measurements; power transformers
Full Text: PDF


Boczar T., Cichon A., Borucki S. (2014), Diagnostic expert system of transformer insulation systems using the acoustic emission method, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 21(2): 854–865, doi: 10.1109/TDEI.2013.004126.

Borucki S. (2012), Diagnosis of technical condition of power transformers based on the analysis of vibroacoustic signals measured in transient operating conditions, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 27(2): 670–676, doi: 10.1109/TPWRD.2012.2185955.

Búa-Núñez I., Posada-Román J.E., Rubio-Serrano J., Garcia-Souto J.A. (2014), Instrumentation system for location of partial discharges using acoustic detection with piezoelectric transducers and optical fiber sensors, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 63(5): 1002–1013, doi: 10.1109/TIM.2013.2286891.

Calcara L., Pompili M., Muzi F. (2017), Standard evolution of Partial Discharge detection in dielectric liquids, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 24(1): 2–6, doi: 10.1109/TDEI.2016.006499.

Cichoń A., Borucki S., Wotzka D. (2014), Modeling of acoustic emission signals generated in on load tap changer, Acta Physica Polonica A, 125(6): 1396–1399, doi: 10.12693/APhysPolA.125.1396.

Coenen S., Tenbohlen S. (2012), Location of PD sources in power transformers by UHF and acoustic measurements, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 19(6): 1934–1940, doi: 10.1109/TDEI.2012.6396950.

Glowacz A., Glowacz W., Glowacz Z., Kozik J. (2018), Early fault diagnosis of bearing and stator faults of the single-phase induction motor using acoustic signals, Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation, 113: 1–9, doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.08.036.

Harbaji M., El-Hag A., Shaban K. (2013), Accurate partial discharge classification from acoustic emission signals, 2013 3rd International Conference on Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems, EPECS 2013, pp. 4–7, doi: 10.1109/EPECS.2013.6713000.

Harbaji M., Shaban K., El-Hag A. (2015), Classification of common partial discharge types in oil-paper insulation system using acoustic signals, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 22(3): 1674–1683, doi: 10.1109/TDEI.2015.7116364.

Ibrahim K., Sharkawy R.M., Salama M.M.A., Bartnikas R. (2012), Realization of partial discharge signals in transformer oils utilizing advanced computational techniques, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 19(6): 1971–1981, doi: 10.1109/TDEI.2012.6396955.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (2019), IEEE Guide for the detection, location and interpretation of sources of acoustic emissions from electrical discharges in power transformers and power reactors, IEEE Std C57.127-2018 (Revision of IEEE Std C57.127-2007), doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2019.8664690.

Kozioł M., Boczar T., Nagi Ł. (2019), Identification of electrical discharge forms, generated in insulating oil, using the optical spectrophotometry method, IET Science, Measurement & Technology, 13(3): 416–425, doi: 10.1049/iet-smt.2018.5059.

Kraetge A., Hoek S., Koch M., Koltunowicz W. (2013), Robust measurement, monitoring and analysis of partial discharges in transformers and other HV apparatus, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 20(6): 2043–2051, doi: 10.1109/TDEI.2013.6678852.

Kundu P., Kishore N.K., Sinha A.K. (2012), Identification of two simultaneous partial discharge sources in an oil-pressboard insulation system using acoustic emission techniques, Applied Acoustics, 73(4): 395–401, doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2011.11.004.

Kundu P., Kishore N.K., Sinha A.K. (2013), Frequency dependent propagation characteristics of partial discharge acoustic emission signal, Proceedings of IEEE 1st International Conference on Condition Assessment Techniques in Electrical Systems, IEEE CATCON 2013, Vol. I, pp. 227–230, doi: 10.1109/CATCON.2013.6737503.

Kunicki M., Cichon A. (2018), Application of a phase resolved partial discharge pattern analysis for acoustic emission method in high voltage insulation systems diagnostics, Archives of Acoustics, 43(2): 235–243, doi: 10.24425/122371.

Kunicki M., Cichon A., Borucki S. (2018), Measurements on partial discharge in on-site operating power transformer: A case study, IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 12(10): 2487–2495, doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2017.1551.

Kunicki M., Cichoń A., Borucki S. (2016), Study on descriptors of acoustic emission signals generated by partial discharges under laboratory conditions and in on-site electrical power transformer, Archives of Acoustics, 41(2): 265–276, doi: 10.1515/aoa-2016-0026.

Kunicki M., Nagi L. (2017), Correlation analysis of partial discharge measurement results, Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 1st IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe, (EEEIC / I and CPS Europe 2017), pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/EEEIC.2017.7977407.

Kunicki M. (2019), Variability of the Acoustic emission signals generated by partial discharges in mineral oil, Archives of Acoustics, 44(2): 339–348, doi: 10.24425/aoa.2019.128497.

Kunicki M., Cichoń A., Nagi Ł. (2018), Statistics based method for partial discharge identification in oil paper insulation systems, Electric Power Systems Research, 163: 559–571, doi: 10.1016/j.epsr.2018.01.007.

Li Y., Du J., Gao J., Zhang X., Liu T., Wang G., Li R., Liu Z., Wang J. (2013), Classification of partial discharge under different voltages using acoustic emission techniques, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Solid Dielectrics, ICSD, pp. 121–124, doi: 10.1109/ICSD.2013.6619854.

Mahmood Najafi S.A., Peimankar A., Saadati H., Gockenbach E., Borsi H. (2013), The influence of corona near to the bushing of a transformer on partial discharge measurement with an acoustic emission sensor, Proceedings of 2013 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference, EIC 2013, pp. 295–298, doi: 10.1109/EIC.2013.6554253.

Mehdizadeh S., Yazdchi M., Niroomand M. (2013), A novel AE based algorithm for PD localization in power transformers, Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, 8(6): 1487–1496, doi: 10.5370/JEET.2013.8.6.1487.

Mondal M., Kumbhar G.B. (2018), Detection, measurement, and classification of partial discharge in a power transformer: methods, trends, and future research, IETE Technical Review (Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers, India), 35(5): 483–493, doi: 10.1080/02564602.2017.1335244.

Murugan R., Ramasamy R. (2015), Failure analysis of power transformer for effective maintenance planning in electric utilities, Engineering Failure Analysis, 55: 182–192, doi: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2015.06.002.

Nicoarǎ T., Marinescu A., Pǎtru I. (2016), Partial discharge diagnostics in power and instrument transformer based on acoustic emission method, Proceedings of 2016 International Conference on Applied and Theoretical Electricity, ICATE 2016, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/ICATE.2016.7754675.

Olszewska A., Witos F. (2012), Location of partial discharge sources and analysis of signals in chosen power oil transformers by means of acoustic emission method, Acta Physica Polonica A, 122(5): 921–926, doi: 10.12693/APhysPolA.122.921.

Olszewska A., Witos F. (2011), Location and identification of acoustic signals recorded in power oil transformers within the band of 20–180 kHz, Acta Physica Polonica A, 120(4): 709–712, doi: 10.12693/APhysPolA.120.709.

Olszewska A., Witos F. (2016), Identification of acoustic emission signals originating from the core magnetization of power oil transformer, Archives of Acoustics, 41(4): 799–812, doi: 10.1515/aoa-2016-0077.

Rozga P. (2016), Using the light emission measurement in assessment of electrical discharge development in different liquid dielectrics under lightning impulse voltage, Electric Power Systems Research, 140: 321–328, doi: 10.1016/j.epsr.2016.06.009.

Rubio-Serrano J., Rojas-Moreno M. V., Posada J., Martínez-Tarifa J., Robles G., García-Souto J. (2012), Electro-acoustic detection, identification and location of partial discharge sources in oil-paper insulation systems, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 19(5): 1569–1578, doi: 10.1109/TDEI.2012.6311502.

Shang H., Lo K.L., Li F. (2017), Partial discharge feature extraction based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and sample entropy, Entropy, 19(9): 439, doi: 10.3390/e19090439.

Siegel M., Beltle M., Tenbohlen S., Coenen S. (2017), Application of UHF sensors for PD measurement at power transformers, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 24(1): 331–339, doi: 10.1109/TDEI.2016.005913.

Sikorski W. (2019), Active dielectricwindow: A new concept of combined acoustic emission and electromagnetic partial discharge detector for power transformers, Energies, 12(1): 115, doi: 10.3390/en12010115.

Tenbohlen S., Coenen S., Djamali M., Müller A., Samimi M.H., Siegel M. (2016), Diagnostic measurements for power transformers, Energies, 9(5): 1–25, doi: 10.3390/en9050347.

Veloso G.F.C., Da Silva L.E.B., Noronha I., Lambert-Torres G. (2008), Identification of wavefronts in Partial Discharge acoustic signals using discrete Wavelet Transform, Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, pp. 1003–1008, doi: 10.1109/ISIE.2008.4677219.

Witos F., Gacek Z. (2005), Application of the calibrated acoustic emission to investigate properties of acoustic emission signals coming from partial discharge sources modelled in laminar systems, Journal de Physique IV (Proceedings), 129: 173–177doi: 10.1051/jp4:2005129037.

Witos F., Olszewska A., Szerszeń G. (2011), Analysis of properties characteristic for acoustic emission signals recorded on-line in power oil transformers, Acta Physica Polonica A, 120(4): 759–762, doi: 10.12693/APhysPolA.120.759.

Yaacob M.M., Alsaedi M.A., Rashed J.R., Dakhil A.M., Atyah S.F. (2014), Review on partial discharge detection techniques related to high voltage power equipment using different sensors, Photonic Sensors, 4, 4, 325–337, doi: 10.1007/s13320-014-0146-7.

DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2020.135279

Copyright © Polish Academy of Sciences & Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT PAN)