Archives of Acoustics, 46, 4, pp. 579–589, 2021
10.24425/aoa.2021.138151

Active Cancellation of the Tonal Component of Sound Using a Discrete Fourier Transform of Variable Length

Michał ŁUCZYNSKI
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
Poland

Andrzej DOBRUCKI
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
Poland

Stefan BRACHMAŃSKI
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
Poland

The paper presents a method of eliminating the tonal component of an acoustic signal. The tonal component is approximated by a sinusoidal signal of a given amplitude and frequency. As the parameters of this component: amplitude, frequency and initial phase may be variable, it is important to detect these parameters in subsequent analysis time intervals (frames). If the detection of the parameters is correct, the elimination consists in adding a sinusoidal component with the detected amplitude and frequency to the signal, but the phase shifted by 180 degrees. The accuracy of the reduction depends on the accuracy of parameters detection and their changes.

Detection takes place using the Discrete Fourier Transform, whose length is changed to match the spectrum resolution to the signal frequency. The operation for various methods of synthesis of the compensating signal as well as various window functions were checked. An elimination simulation was performed to analyze the effectiveness of the reduction. The result of the paper is the assessment of the method in narrowband active noise control systems. The method was tested by simulation and then experimentally with real acoustic signals. The level of reduction was from 6.9 to 31.5 dB.
Keywords: active noise control; tonal signal; Discrete Fourier Transform.
Full Text: PDF

References

Dąbrowski Z., Stankiewicz B. (2013), Methodology of selecting the reference source for an active noise control system in a car, International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 19(1): 117–125, doi: 10.1080/10803548.2013.11076971.

Dąbrowski Z., Dziurdź J., Górnicka D. (2017), Utilisation of the coherence analysis in acoustic diagnostics of internal combustion engines, Archives of Acoustics, 42(3): 475–481, doi: doi: 10.1515/aoa-2017-0050.

Górski P., Morzyński L. (2013), Active noise reduction algorithm based on NOTCH filter and genetic algorithm, Archives of Acoustics, 38(2): 185–190, doi: 10.2478/aoa-2013-0021

ISO 1996-2:2017 (2017), Acoustics – Description, measurement and assessment of environmental noise – Part 2: Determination of sound pressure levels, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Kuo S.M., Tahernezhadi M., Ji L. (1997), Frequency-domain periodic active noise control and equalization, IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing, 5(4): 348–358, doi: 10.1109/89.593309.

Kim S., Park Y. (1999), Active control of multi-tonal noise with reference generator based on on-line frequency estimation, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 227(3): 647–666, doi: 10.1006/jsvi.1999.2383.

Łuczyński M. (2017), Analysis of the influence of amplitude, frequency and phase errors on effectiveness of noise reduction of multitone signals by active noise cancelling systems, [in:] Postępy akustyki = Advances in Acoustics 2017, D. Bismor [Ed.], pp. 61–67, Gliwice: Polskie Towarzystwo Akustyczne, Oddział Górnośląski, doi: 10.1515/aoa-2017-0059.

Łuczyński M. (2018), Normal to whisper speech conversion using active tone cancellation – case study, [in:] Postępy akustyki = Advances in acoustics 2018, J. Marszal [Ed.], pp. 62–66, Gdańsk: Polskie Towarzystwo Akustyczne, Oddział Gdański.

Łuczyński M. (2019a), Classes of tonality of signals in the aspect of active elimination of tonal components, Vibrations in Physical Systems, 30(1): Article ID 2019126.

Łuczyński M. (2019b), Primary study on removing mains hum from recordings by active tone cancellation algorithms, [in:] 146th Convention Audio Engineering Society, March 20–23, 2019 Dublin, Ireland, Convention paper No. 10147, http://www.aes.org/e-lib/browse.cfm?elib=20280.

Łuczyński M., Brachmański S. (2017), Mathematical Model of the Acoustic Signal Generated by the Combustion Engine, [in:] 142nd Convention Audio Engineering Society, May 20–23, 2017, Berlin, Germany, Convention paper No. 9717, http://www.aes.org/e-lib/browse.cfm?elib=18595.

Pawełczyk M. (2008), Active noise control – a review of control-related problems (plenary paper), [in:] 55th Open Seminar on Acoustics, Wrocław–Piechowice 8–12.09.2008, pp. 65–74.

Qiu X., Hansen C.H. (2000), An algorithm for active control of transformer noise with online cancellation path modelling based on perturbation method, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 240(4): 647–665, doi: 10.1006/jsvi.2000.3256

Qiu X., Li X., Ai Y., Hansen C.H. (2002), A waveform synthesis algorithm for active control of transformer noise: implementation, Applied Acoustics, 63(5): 467–479, doi: 10.1016/S0003-682X(01)00060-3.

Rocha R.D. (2014), A Frequency-Domain Method for Active Acoustic Cancellation of Known Audio Sources, A Master Thesis, Faculty of California Polytechnic State University, San Louis Obispo, June 2014, https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2331&context=theses.

Rout N.K., Das D.P., Panda G. (2019), PSO based adaptive narrowband ANC algorithm without the use of synchronization signal and secondary path estimate, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 114: 378–398, doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2018.05.018.

Ueda T., Fujii K., Hirobayashi S., Yoshizawa T., Misawa T. (2013), Motion analysis using 3D high-resolution frequency analysis, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 22(8): 2946–2959, doi: 10.1109/TIP.2012.2228490.

Wang J., Huang L., Cheng L. (2005), A study of active tonal noise control for a small axial flow fan, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 117(2): 734–743, doi: 10.1121/1.1848072

Xiao Y., Ma L., Hasegawa K. (2009), Properties of FXLMS-based narrowband active noise control with online secondary-path modeling, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 57(8): 2931–2949, doi: 10.1109/TSP.2009.2020766

Yoshizawa T., Hirobayashi S., Misawa T. (2011), Noise reduction for periodic signals using high resolution frequency analysis, Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing, 2011: 5, doi: 10.1186/1687-4722-2011-426794

Zhang L., Tao J., Qiu X. (2012), Active control of transformer noise with an internally synthesized reference signal, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331(15): 3466–3475, doi: 10.1016/j.jsv.2012.03.032.

Zivanovic M., Roebel A., Rodet X. (2004), A new approach to spectral peak classification, [In:] Proceedings of the 12th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), pp. 1277–1280, https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01161188.

Ulrich R., Vorberg D. (2009), Estimating the difference limen in 2AFC tasks: pitfalls and improved estimators, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 71(6): 1219–1227, doi: 10.3758/app.71.6.1219

Wilkowski J., Michalowski P., Czarniak P., Górski J., Podziewski P., Szymanowski K. (2014), Influence of spruce, wenge and obeche wood used for electric guitar prototype on selected sound properties, Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW. Forestry and Wood Technology, 85: 235–240.




DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2021.138151

Copyright © Polish Academy of Sciences & Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT PAN)