Archives of Acoustics, 36, 2, pp. 419–436, 2011

Advances in Digitization of Microphones and Loudspeakers

Zbigniew KULKA
Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Radioelectronics, Electroacoustics Division

The development of digital microphones and loudspeakers adds new and interesting
possibilities of their applications in different fields, extended from industrial,
medical to consumer audio markets. One of the rapidly growing field of applications
is mobile multimedia, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, laptop and desktop
PCs, etc. The advances have also been made in digital audio, particularly in direct
digital transduction, so it is now possible to create the all-digital audio recording
and reproduction chains potentially having several advantages over existing analog
Keywords: electret condenser microphone; digital microphone; CMOS-MEMS digital microphone; digital microphone array; sigma-delta ADC/DAC; digital loudspeaker; CMOS-MEMS digital loudspeaker; digital loudspeaker array
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