Archives of Acoustics, 45, 4, pp. 681–686, 2020

Analysis of the Saw System with the PANI + Nafion Sensing Structure for Detection of Low Concentration Carbon Monoxide

The Academy of Creative Development – the Foundation

Silesian University of Technology

The paper presents a measuring system based on two resonators with a SAWacoustic surface wave. One of the resonators contains a sensor structure consisting of a Nafion layer with a PANI polyaniline nanolayer deposited on it. The sensor structure was tested for carbon monoxide, with a very low concentration (5, 10, 15, 20 ppm) in the atmosphere of synthetic air. The structure sensitivity was tested for two different PANI thicknesses: (100 and 180 nm). The tests were carried out for two different temperatures: 308 K and 315 K. The investigations shows that the measuring system used with the acoustic surface wave together with the proposed sensing layers is sensitive to the presence of low concentration carbon monoxide molecules in the atmosphere of synthetic air.
Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave sensors; carbon monoxide detection; poisonous CO
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).


Bielecki Z. et al.. (2012), Sensors and systems for the detection of explosive devices, Metrology And Measurement Systems, 19(1): 3–28, doi: 10.2478/v10178-012-0001-3

Buckley N.A., Isbister G.K., Stokes B., Juurlink D.N. (2005), Hyperbaric oxygen for carbon monoxide poisoning. A systematic review and critical analysis of the evidence, Toxicological Reviews, 2(24): 75–92, doi: 10.2165/00139709-200524020–00002, PMID: 16180928.

CDC&P (2019), Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Carbon Monoxide Poisoning, CDC 24/7: Seving Lives, Protecting Peopel,

Hejczyk T. (2013), Analytical model as well as numerical and experimental tests of a gas sensor with an acoustic surface wave [in Polish], PhD Thesis, Faculty of Electrical Engineering at Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland.

Hejczyk T., Pustelny T., Wszolek B., Jakubik W., Maciak E. (2016), numerical analysis of sensitivity of SAW structure to the effect of toxic gases, 41(4): 747–755. doi: 10.1515/aoa-2016-0072.

Hejczyk T., Urbanczyk M., Pustelny T., Jakubik W. (2015), Numerical and experimental analysis of the response of a SAW structure with WO3 layers an action of carbon monoxide, Archives of Acoustics, 40(1): 19–24, doi: 10.1515/aoa-2015-0003.

Huang L.M., Chen C.H, Wen T.C. (2006), Development and characterization of flexible electrochromic devices based on polyaniline and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonic acid), Electrochimica Acta, 51(26): 5858–5863, doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2006.03.031.

Jakubik W., Urbanczyk M., Maciak E., Pustelny T. (2008), Surface acoustic wave hydrogen gas sensor based on layered structure of palladium/metal-free phthalocyanine, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Technical Sciences, 56(2): 133–138.

Jakubik W., Urbanczyk M., Maciak E., Pustelny T., Stolarczyk A. (2005) Polyaniline thin films as toxic gas sensors in SAW system, Journal de Physique IV, 129: 121–124, doi: 10.1051/jp4:2005129026.

Jasek K., Miluski W., Pasternak M. (2011), New approach to saw gas sensors array response measurement, Acta Physica Polonica A, 120(4): 639–641, doi: 10.12693/APhysPolA.120.639.

Jasek K., Neffe S., Pasternak M. (2012), SAW sensor for mercury vapour detection, Acta Physica Polonica A, 122(5): 825–828, doi: 10.12693/APhysPolA.122.825.

Kawalec A., Pasternak M., Jasek K. (2008), Measurements results of SAW humidity sensor with nafion layer, European Physical Journal: Special Topics, 154(1): 121–126, doi: 10.1140/epjst/e2008-00529-x.

KGPSP (2014), National Headquarters of the State Fire Service, The heating season 2012–2013 [in Polish], [access from on 2014-02-08].

Matsunaga N., Sakai G., Shimonoe K., Yamazoe N. (2001), Diffusion equation-based study of thin film semiconductor gas sensor-response transient, Sensors and Actuators B, 83: 216–221, doi: 10.1016/S0925-4005(01)00669-4.

Matsunaga N., Sakai G., Shimonoe K., Yamazoe N. (2003), Formutation of gas diffusion for thin film semiconductor gas sensor based on simple reaction-diffusion equation, Sensors and Actuators B, 96: 226–233, doi: 10.1016/S0925-4005(03)00529-X.

Omaye S.T. (2002), Metabolic modulation of carbon monoxide toxicity, Toxicology, 180(2): 139–150, doi: 10.1016/S0300–483X(02)00387-6, PMID: 12324190.

Pustelny B., Pustelny T. (2009), Transverse acoustoelectric effect applying in surface study of GaP:Te(111), Acta Physica Polonica A, 116(3): 383–384, doi: 10.12693/APhysPolA.116.383.

Schreter R.E. (2007), Formation and movement of carbon monoxide into mobile homes, recreational vehicles, and other enclosures, [in:] Carbon Monoxide Poisoning, Penney D.G. [Ed.], CRC Press, pp. 83–124.

Senczuk W. (2002) Toxicology. A textbook for students, doctors and pharmacists, 4th ed. [in Polish], Medical Publisher PZ, Warszawa.

Urbanczyk M. (2011), Gas sensors on the base of Surface Acoustic Wave [in Polish], SUT, Gliwice, Poland.

Urbanczyk M., Pustelny T. (2013), The application of surface acoustic waves in surface semiconductor investigation and gas sensors, [in:] Modeling and Measurement Methods for Acoustic Wave and for Acoustic Microdevices, Beghi, M.G. [Ed.], pp. 91–126.

DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2020.135274